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高效P型晶硅背钝化电池的机理及工艺研究
论文作者:童鞋论文网  论文来源:www.txlunwenw.com  发布时间:2019/10/29 7:45:19  

摘要:P型单晶钝化发射极背接触太阳能电池(PERC)由于其高效低成本、与常规产线兼容性好等特点,成为了近年来晶硅太阳能电池研究的主要热点之一,并在近期开始了大规模的转移量产。降低发射极的复合损失、背面光学损失、背面局部接触的损失、硅片体内的复合损失等,是提高PERC电池的光电转换效率需要研究和解决的问题。本论文通过研究改进了PERC电池的发射极掺杂浓度分布,背表面形貌和背面叠层膜系,背面激光开槽图形以及局部接触性能等方法,提升了电池的转换效率。同时还研究了百微米级PERC电池的光电力学性能以及产业化薄电池的关键工艺。最后我们成功获得了第三方认证机构确认的高效P型大面积可量产的单晶PERC电池的效率世界纪录,并对纪录电池做了详细的损失分析研究。本论文的主要研究内容如下:

(1)研究了PERC电池的选择性发射极的掺杂浓度分布。分别针对两步扩散工艺和三步扩散工艺,系统研究了扩散、返刻后的饱和电流密度J0、掺杂浓度曲线、金属与硅接触电阻率Rc等参数,得到了具有低的发射极饱和电流密度J0e和高接触性能的选择性发射极。研究结果表明:新开发的三步扩散工艺很好的平衡了电池的开路电压Voc和填充因子FF,在保持较低的J0,emitter的同时,也能降低接触电阻率Rc,绝对效率提升了大约0.2%。同时扩散工艺也转移到量产,获得了平均21.7%的量产效率。

(2)研究了PERC电池背表面形貌和背面叠层膜对电池的光学、电学特性的影响。通过模拟结合实验的方法,详细研究了HF:HNO3:H2O刻蚀体系在不同配比和时间下,对金字塔碱绒面的腐蚀情况的影响。同时也研究了背面AlOx/SiOx/SiNx三叠层钝化膜光学特性,以及在电池上的表现情况。研究结果表明:在HF:HNO3:H2O=1:3:4配比下,刻蚀时间180s时,有着最佳的背反射光学特性,绝对效率提升了0.12%。背面采用AlOx/SiOx/ SiNx三叠层钝化膜结构,模拟最佳的膜厚、折射率分别是20nm/220nm/80nm,1.6/1.46/2.05。利用太阳能器件仿真软件Quokka的模拟电性能,最终电池绝对效率提升了0.12%。酸刻蚀叠加AlOx/SiOx/ SiNx叠层膜,绝对效率提升0.14%。

(3)研究了PERC电池的背面局部接触的图形和性能。模拟结合实验方式找出背面最佳的开膜图形。同时也研究了硼激光掺杂的特性以及电池电性能上的表现。研究结果表明:三种图形的效率随着间隔pitch的增加都先增大后减少,模拟最高效率对应的间隔pitch分别是800μm, 400μm和 230μm。实验结果表面采用分段线和点接触的电池的最高效率在20.95%左右,比线接触提升了0.1%的绝对效率。背面接触区采用硼激光掺杂,可以有效降低局部背表面场LBSF的复合电流和接触电阻,提升接触区的接触性能,提升电池效率,最高提效绝对值在0.2%左右。

(4)研究了不同厚度PERC电池的光学、电学和力学性能。通过光学模拟软件Wafer Ray tracer和太阳能器件仿真软件Quokka对不同厚度电池进行模拟。模拟结果显示,随着电池片厚度的降低,电池效率会因电流的降低而逐渐降低。实验结果表明,电池最高效率在120-160μm之间。另一个重要的问题是薄硅片在量产工艺过程中,特别是清洗、丝网印刷工序,碎片率高。通过工序上的调试,对于80-100μm厚的硅片,可以有效降低其碎片率,并控制在1%以内。超薄电池的良好弯曲性可适应于如汽车和建筑物的曲面电池安装等更广泛的领域。

(5)研究了由我们制备的由第三方检测机构德国Fraunhofer ISE CalLab认证的22.61%世界纪录PERC电池的复合、电阻和光学损失分析。我们通过监控片的方式表征了纪录电池片发射极的饱和电流密度J0,emitter,硅片体区的少子寿命τbulk,背表面钝化及局部接触饱和电流密度,以及正面栅线接触区的复合电流。通过Sentaurus器件模拟软件来进行高效电池的复合、电阻、光学的损失分析。在模拟结果中,发射极、体区和背面接触区复合损失是主要的,LBSF区域和背面钝化区相的复合损失相对较少。金属区复合损失,相对于电池整体的复合来说,影响很小。我们采用PV Lighthouse上的Module Ray Tracer (MRT)软件进行对光学损失进行分析,结果显示电池前表面太阳光的反射损失为最大的光学损失,背面的寄生光吸收其次。模拟得出的电流密度Jsc = 40.48 mA/cm2,与实验测试结果的平均值40.51 mA/cm2相符。

Passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC) onp-type Cz Si wafers are becoming one of the hot research topic in silicon solarcell due to its high efficiency, low cost and good compatibility withconventional production line, and currently being migrated to mainstreamproduction. At present, the conversion efficiency of PERC solar cell is nothigh enough, and the recombination loss of emitter, rear optical loss, rearlocal contact loss, and recombination loss of the bulk are relatively high.Therefore, improving the cell efficiency of PERC solar cell is a problem thatneeds to be studied and solved. In this dissertation, the cell efficiency ofPERC solar was improved by the research of emitter dopant concentrationdistribution, rear surface morphology and stack films, rear laser ablationpattern and local contact performance. Meanwhile, the photoelectric andmechanical properties of 100 micron PERC solar cell and the key technology ofindustrialized thin cells were also studied. At last, we successfullyfabricated the high efficiency p-type industrial mono PERC cells which had theworld record efficiency confirmed by Fraunhofer ISE CalLab, and the power lossanalysis of our champion cell had been investigated. Detailed innovativeresearch contents are shown as follows:

(1) The selective emitter dopantconcentration distribution had been researched. According to the two-step andthree-step diffusion process, the parameters such as diffused and etched-backsaturation current density J0, the doping concentration curves, the contactresistivity Rc between metal and silicon were systematically studied, and theselective emitter with low saturation current density J0 and high contactperformance was obtained. The results clearly show that the newly developedthree-step diffusion process had well balanced the open circuit voltage Voc andfilling factor FF of the solar cell. While maintaining the low J0,emitter, itcan also reduce the contact resistivity Rc and improve the absolute efficiencyby approximately 0.2%. At the same time, the diffusion process was transferredto mass production, and the average mass production efficiency was 21.7%.

(2) The effects of rear surface morphologyand rear stack films of PERC solar cell on its optical and electricalproperties were studied. And the effect of HF:HNO3:H2O etching system on thecorrosion of the pyramid was studied in detail by simulation combined withexperiment. Meanwhile, the optical properties of the rear AlOx/SiOx/SiNxpassivation films were also studied, as well as the performance on the solarcell. The results clearly showed that at the ratio of HF:HNO3:H2O =1:3:4, theetching time at 180s has the best rear reflection optical properties. From theelectrical performance, the trend conformed to the theoretical basis and theabsolute efficiency was improved by 0.12%. The best film thickness andrefractive index were 20nm/220nm/80nm, 1.6/1.46/2.05 respectively for theAlOx/SiOx/SiNx stack films. By using Quokka simulator, the absolute cellefficiency was improved by 0.12%. The efficiency of PERC solar cell was onlyimproved 0.05% due to the issue of laser ablation on the thick rear stackfilms. The absolute efficiency was improved approximately 0.14% by combiningwith acid polish and AlOx/SiOx/ SiNx stack films.

(3) The laser pattern and local contactperformance on the rear side of PERC solar cell were investigated. The bestlaser pattern on the rear side was found by simulation and experiment, and theproperties of boron laser doping and the performance on the solar cell werealso studied. The results clearly show that the efficiency of the three laserpatterns increased first and then decreased with the increase of pitch. Thepitch corresponding to the simulated maximum efficiency were 800μm, 400μm and230μm respectively.

关键词:晶硅太阳电池;背钝化;局域接触;选择性发射极;背反射器;硼激光掺杂;超薄电池;损失分析

crystalline silicon solar cell; rearpassivation; local contact; selective emitter; rear reflector; boron laserdoping; ultrathin solar cell; lose analysi

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