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耕作型湿地生物-生态耦合净化村落污水实验研究
论文作者:童鞋论文网  论文来源:www.txlunwenw.com  发布时间:2019/9/11 8:22:04  

摘要:近年来,我国农村水环境质量改善工作正如火如荼的进行,但仍有部分农村地区水环境质量不容乐观,这些地区生活污水通过直排的方式排入附近水体,大量的氮磷排入水体后,加重周边水体富营养化程度。因此通过人工湿地来对村落污水进行水质净化,高效去除污水中的环境内分泌干扰物,保证出水的水质安全,对降低农村居民用水风险,营造良好的农村生态水环境具有长远意义。

本文针对南方水网地区农村生活污水水量小,水质稳定的特点,以南方地区水稻田为载体,构建低负荷耕作型稻田水平潜流湿地。研究内容包括以下6个部分:①探究水稻生长周期中,耕作型复合人工湿地对于常规水质污染物的去除效能;②菌剂强化协同稻田湿地净化生活污水,研究在菌剂强化下的稻田湿地对于目标污染物的去除效率并建立相应的水处理动力学模型,并分析溶解性有机物在生物降解过程中的迁移规律;③从水质净化和土壤残留2方面,来评估湿地对于污水中的EDCs的降解效能;④采用浮游藻类镜检、脲酶活性测定及根系微生物的高通量测序,来揭示湿地系统中的微生物变化趋势;⑤引入发光细菌急性毒性检测和有机物致突变性强度模型,全面评价湿地出水的水质健康风险;⑥利用水质模型对整改后的河道示范工程,进行跟踪影响评价,考察示范工程的氮、磷拦截效能。针对上述研究内容,研究成果如下:

(1)以水稻为载体构建的耕作型湿地来处理村落污水的最佳水力负荷为0.024 m3/(m2·d),在此条件下,TN、TP、NH3-N、CODcr的平均去除率为72 %、84 %、80 %、46.8 %。复合型生态沟渠对CODMn的去除率为37.5 %,对TP、NH3-N、NO3-N、TN的去除效果相对较好,分别为87.1 %、92.3 %、77.5 %、88.6 %。

(2)菌剂强化下湿地的CODcr及UV254的平均去除率为68 %、70%,分别提高了8 %、11 %,平均出水浓度为31.09 mg/L、0.08 mg/L,湿地系统对叶绿素的去除影响不大,去除率为90 %,平均出水浓度为2.35 μg/L。湿地系统对TP、NH3-N、TN的平均去除率分别92.5 %、91.34 %、89.22%,分别提高了6.4 %、10 %、16.22 %,通过一级动力学拟合方程模拟的耕作型湿地的出水浓度与实际出水浓度相近,偏差在8 %以内。

(3)生活污水中的EDCs主要以雌酮(E1)、雌二醇(E2)的形式存在,未投菌组对雌酮(E1)、雌二醇(E2)、雌三醇(E3)及17α-乙炔基雌二醇(EE2)的平均降解率分别为80 %、72.4 %、51.4 %、68.3 %,投菌组的平均降解率为82 %、73.4 %、60.5 %、75.6 %。随着湿地的连续进水基质层中E2、EE2下降了近55%,且投菌组降解效果更佳。

(4)在耕作型湿地处理生活污水的过程中,土壤微生物种群较为丰富,主要以好氧菌属为主。测序结果表明,实验初期,细菌门类从28门增至3余门,属从237属增至280余属,实验中期门类稳定在35门,当运行至冬季后,湿地系统内微生物种群有了大幅下降。优势菌属主要有马赛菌属(Massilia,0.01 %~6.97 %)、G6(1.12 %~4.62 %)、G7(1.72 %~6.63 %)、芽单胞菌属(Gemmatimonas,1.07 %~5.96 %)、鞘脂单胞菌属(Sphingomonas,0.11 %~5.51 %),溶杆菌属(Lysobacter,0.08 %~4.54 %)等。同时装置由于投加了反硝化细菌,装置中的脱氮除磷菌-马赛菌属(Massilia,6.69%-12.27)及假单胞菌属(Pseudomonadaceae,1.5 %~2.45 %)数量明显增多,进而提高了湿地对氮、磷的生物降解能力。

(5)耕作型湿地对于污水中急性毒性,具有较明显的降解效果。生物菌剂的投加,有助于降低出水的致突变性及水体中的急性毒性。B装置的回复突变率值在1.07~1.35之间,A装置的在1.30~1.66之间,均小于2,都不具备致突变性。

(6)对示范工程连续8个月的监管维护下,在河道整治后的第3个月,其逐渐恢复自净能力。河道水质通过模糊综合评价法得出的结论是,已基本达到地表水环境质量标准中的Ⅴ类水标准。

In recent years, the work of improving thequality of rural water environment is being actively carried out in China, butthe quality of water environment in some rural areas is still not optimistic.These areas of domestic sewage through the way of direct row into the nearbywater body, a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into the waterbody, aggravate the degree of eutrophication of the surrounding water bodies.

Therefore, the artificial water is used topurify the village sewage, and the environmental endocrine disruptors in thesewage are effectively removed to ensure the water quality of the effluent. Ithas long-term significance for reducing the water risk of rural residents andcreating a good rural ecological water environment. Aiming at thecharacteristics of small amount of water and stable water quality in rural areasof Southern Water network area, this paper constructs the horizontalsubmersible wetland of low-load cultivated paddy field as the carrier of Paddyfield in the south. The research content includes the following 6 parts: Thefirst one, explore the removal efficiency of cultivated composite constructedwetland for conventional water quality pollutants during the rice growth cycle;The second one, bacteria to strengthen cooperative paddy wetland to purifydomestic sewage, study the removal of target pollutants by Paddy wetland underthe reinforcement of fungi, and establish the corresponding dynamic model ofwater treatment, The migration law of dissolved organic matter in the processof biodegradation was analyzed; The third one, the degradation efficiency ofwetland to EDCs in sewage from two aspects of water purification and soilresidue; The fourth one, the trend of microbial change in wetland system wasrevealed by plankton algae microscopy, urease activity determination andhigh-throughput sequencing of root microorganisms; The fifth one, theintroduced the acute toxicity detection of luminescent bacteria and the mutantstrength model of organic matter, and comprehensively evaluated the waterquality health risk of wetland effluent; The last one, used water quality modelto carry out tracking impact evaluation on the post-Rectification Riverdemonstration project, and investigated the nitrogen and phosphorusinterception efficiency of the demonstration project.

In view of the above research contents, theresearch results are as follows:

(1) The optimal hydraulic load of thecultivated wetland constructed from rice as a carrier for the treatment ofvillage sewage is 0.024 m3/(m2·d), under which the average removal rate oftotal nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and CODcr is 72, 84, 80 and46.8 percent.The removal rate of CODMn in compound ecological pond was 37.5,and the removal effect of total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogenand total nitrogen was relatively good, 87.1, 92.3, 77.5 and 88.6,respectively.

(2) The average removal rate of CODcr andUV254 in wetlands reinforced by fungi was 68 per cent and 70 per cent,respectively, by 8 per cent, 11 per cent, the average effluent concentrationwas 31.09 mg/l, 0.08, the wetland system had little effect on the removal ofchlorophyll, the removal rate was 90 per cent, and the average effluentconcentration was 2.35 mg/L.The average removal rate of total phosphorus,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen in wetland system was 92.5 percent, 91.34percent and 89.22 percent respectively, which increased by 6.4 percent, 10percent and 16.22 percent respectively, and the effluent concentration ofcultivated wetlands simulated by the first-degree kinetic fitting equation wassimilar to the actual effluent concentration, with deviations within 8 percent.

关键词:耕作型湿地;EDCs;菌剂;微生物;急性毒性

Cultivated wetlands; EDCs; Bacterial Agent;Microorganisms; Acute toxicity

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