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论硅对水稻不同品种吸收、分配及积累镉、铅的影响
论文作者:童鞋论文网  论文来源:www.txlunwenw.com  发布时间:2020/11/18 14:46:18  

摘要:近几十年来,由于采矿、污灌、三废排放和肥料的不合理利用,导致我国农田土壤镉(Cd)、铅(Pb)污染日趋严重。水稻是我国最主要的粮食作物,大多数人都以稻米为主食。但是,近年来稻田及稻米的Cd、Pb污染日趋严重,极大地威胁到了广大人民的身体健康,因此研究水稻Cd、Pb污染的防治具有极其重要的意义。本论文选择在Cd、Pb污染土壤中对Cd、Pb吸收、分配及积累能力存在显著差异的典型水稻品种作为材料,通过纳米硅和普通硅的施用,研究其对不同品种水稻吸收、分配及积累Cd、Pb的影响,利用不同施硅水平及方式研究其对水稻产量及籽粒Cd、Pb含量的影响。主要研究结果如下:

(1)水稻品种间对Cd、Pb毒害的耐性差异较大,扬稻6号对土壤Cd、Pb胁迫的敏感性高于予44号。在土壤Cd、Pb胁迫下,纳米硅肥对Cd、Pb毒性的缓解作用高于普通硅肥。

(2)硅肥施用降低了水稻植株中Cd、Pb的积累浓度,水稻根系、茎叶和籽粒中的Cd、Pb浓度都大大降低。在10 mg/kg土壤Cd水平下,纳米硅处理后扬稻6号籽粒Cd浓度下降率达到70.3%;在1000 mg/kg土壤Pb水平下,纳米硅处理后扬稻6号籽粒中Pb浓度的下降率达到64.8%。

(3)硅处理降低了水稻根系、茎叶、籽粒的Cd、Pb积累量,纳米硅处理对水稻植株各部位Cd、Pb积累量的降低效果均比普通硅处理好。在相同的土壤Cd、Pb水平下,施硅对扬稻6号根系、茎叶、籽粒Cd、Pb积累量的降低效果均好于对予44号。

(4)硅的施用减少了Cd、Pb从根系到茎叶以及从茎叶到籽粒的转运系数。施硅对水稻根中Cd、Pb分配比例的影响较小,在各种土壤Cd、Pb水平下,对于不同品种,硅处理间Cd、Pb在水稻根中分配比例的差异大多不显著(P > 0.05)。但是,施用硅大幅度减少水稻茎叶和籽粒中Cd、Pb的分配比例。结果表明,纳米硅在降低Cd、Pb由水稻根系向茎叶及由茎叶到籽粒的转运方面,以及在减少茎叶及籽粒中Cd、Pb分配比例方面均优于普通硅。

(5)随着施硅水平和施硅次数的增加,水稻的籽粒产量增加,而且籽粒Cd、Pb浓度迅速下降。施硅对水稻籽粒产量的提升效果及对籽粒Cd、Pb浓度的降低效果随水稻品种、施硅水平和施硅方法的不同而不同。结果表明,在Cd、Pb污染土壤中,施硅可以大幅度降低水稻籽粒的Cd、Pb含量,而且可以在一定程度上提高水稻的籽粒产量。在水稻生育期间,通过高水平施硅和采用两次施硅的施硅方法,可以使水稻籽粒的Cd、Pb浓度降低约70%或更多,同时使水稻的籽粒产量提高约10%。

关键词:水稻;硅;镉;铅;吸收;分配;积累快捷检索

Abstract: In recent decades, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution in China’s farmland have become increasingly serious due to unreasonable use of mining, sewage irrigation and fertilizers, and the treatments of wastes. Rice is the most important food crop in China, and most people rely on rice as their staple food. However, in recent years, Cd and Pb pollution in rice fields and rice has become increasingly serious, which has greatly threatened the health of people. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the prevention and control of Cd and Pb pollution in rice. This paper selected typical rice varieties with significant differences in Cd and Pb absorption, distribution, and accumulation in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils as materials. Effects of nano-silicon and ordinary silicon on Cd and Pb absorption, distribution, and accumulation in different varieties of rice were studied. The effects of different silicon application levels and methods on rice yield and grain Cd and Pb content were also studied. The main results are as follows:

(1) The tolerance to Cd and Pb of the rice varieties is quite different. Yangdao 6 is more sensitive to soil Cd and Pb stress than Yu 44. Under soil Cd and Pb stress, the mitigation effect of nano-silicon fertilizer on Cd and Pb toxicity was higher than that of ordinary silicon fertilizer.

(2) Silicon fertilizer application reduced Cd and Pb concentrations in rice plants. Cd and Pb concentrations in rice roots, shoots and grains were greatly reduced. At 10 mg/kg soil Cd level, the Cd concentration in the grain of Yangdao 6 decreased by70.3% after nano-silicon treatment. At 1000 mg/kg soil Pb level, the grain Pb concentration of Yangdao 6 decreased by 64.8% after nano-silicon treatment.

(3) Silicon treatment reduced Cd and Pb accumulation in rice roots, shoots and grains. Nano-silicon is better than ordinary silicon in reducing Cd and Pb accumulation in various parts of rice plants. Under the same soil Cd and Pb levels, the effects of silicon application in reducing Cd and Pb accumulation in different parts of rice plants were better in Yangdao 6 than in Yu 44.

(4) Silicon application reduced the transfer factors of Cd and Pb from roots to shoots and from shoots to the grains. The effects of silicon application on the distribution ratios of Cd and Pb in rice roots were small. Under different soil Cd and Pb levels, the differences between silicon treatments in distribution ratios of Cd and Pb in rice roots were mostly insignificant (P > 0.05). However, the application of silicon significantly reduced the distribution ratios of Cd and Pb in rice shoots and the grains. The results show that nano-silicon is superior to ordinary silicon in reducing the transport of Cd and Pb from rice roots to shoots, and from shoots to grains, and in reducing the distribution ratio of Cd and Pb in shoots and grains.

(5) With the increase of silicon application level and frequency, the grain yield of rice increased, and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the grain decreased rapidly. The effect of silicon application on increasing the yields of rice grains and reducing the concentrations of Cd and Pb in rice grains varied with rice varieties, silicon application levels, and silicon application methods. The results showed that in the Cd and Pb contaminated soils, silicon applications reduced Cd and Pb contents of rice grains significantly, and increased the grain yields of rice considerably. During the rice growth period, through silicon application of high-level and the silicon application method of two times, the Cd and Pb concentrations of rice grains can be reduced by about 70% or more, and the grain yield of rice can be increased by about 10%.

Key words: Rice; Silicon; Cadmium; Lead; Absorption; Distribution; Accumulation

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