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论水蜜桃核活性炭制备及其在果酒废水处理中的应用
论文作者:童鞋论文网  论文来源:www.txlunwenw.com  发布时间:2020/11/18 14:49:15  

摘要:水蜜桃酒酿造技术已较为成熟,且易于规模化生产,是水蜜桃理想的消费转型方式之一。目前水蜜桃酒的生产主要集中在中小型酒厂,在酿造过程中会产生大量桃核及废水,且不同阶段的废水性质差异较大,倘若处理不当会给环境造成巨大压力。本论文以水蜜桃核为原料,研究桃核活性炭制备最佳条件,并将其用于处理水蜜桃酒酿造过程中产生的低浓度清洗废水、高浓度发酵废水,研究内容和结论如下:

(1)以水蜜桃核为原料,氯化锌为活化剂,得出水蜜桃核活性炭最佳制备工艺为:活化温度500 ℃,活化时间2.5 h,ZnCl2浓度50%,桃核粒径50-60目,浸渍比为1:2。该条件下制备出的水蜜桃核活性炭得率为47.31%,对酿酒清洗废水COD去除率可达93.67%。

表征结果表明,最优条件下制备出的桃核活性炭总孔容为0.642 cm³/g,比表面积为1180.83 m²/g,较活化前有明显提高。傅里叶红外光谱结果表明制得的活性炭中含有羟基、碳碳双键、醚基等官能团。与市售活性炭对比结果表明,自制桃核活性炭微孔孔容更大,更适用于处理果酒废水。

(2)桃核活性炭处理清洗废水实验结果表明,吸附温度及初始pH对COD去除率的影响显著。在桃核活性炭投加量为10 g/L、温度为20 ℃、pH为6的情况下吸附60 min后,废水COD去除率最高。吸附温度对SS去除率影响显著,在活性炭投加量为12 g/L、温度为25 ℃、pH为7的情况下吸附60 min后,废水SS去除率最高。两种条件下处理后的废水COD、SS均到达国家污水综合排放二级标准。

桃核活性炭吸附等温线及动力学结果表明,活性炭COD最大吸附量理论可达621.12 mg/g,准二级动力学能更好地描述桃核活性炭吸附废水COD的过程,这表明该过程既有物理吸附也有化学吸附,桃核活性炭是处理果酒废水的良好材料。

(3)采用超声/H2O2/活性炭联用技术处理发酵废水,结合单因素实验结果,确定超声最佳时间为15 min、桃核活性炭最佳投加量为14 g/L。采用响应面实验优化超声功率、温度及H2O2用量,建立了以废水COD去除率为响应值的预测模型,模型R2为0.9849,Radj2为0.9655,p值为0.3943,表明该模型显著,对废水COD去除率影响程度为H2O2用量>超声功率>超声温度。验证实验结果表明,超声功率最佳为270 W、温度最佳为33 ℃、H2O2用量最佳为48 ml/L,在此情况下废水COD去除率可达96.09%。结合GC-MS等测定结果可以看出,超声/H2O2/活性炭方法能有效去除酿酒废水中的大部分有机物,这为超声技术在实际酿酒废水处理中的应用提供了有益参考。

关键词:桃核活性炭;制备;酿酒废水;吸附处理;超声处理快捷检索

Abstract: Peach winemaking technology has been mature, and it’s easy to scale production. It is one of the ideal consumption transformation ways of nectarine. At present, the production of peach wine is mainly concentrated in medium or small-scale winery, and there will be a lot of peach pit and waste water in the winemaking process. If not properly treated, it will give rise to huge pressure on the environment. In this thesis, peach pit was used for making activated carbon, and the optimum conditions for the making of peach pit activated carbon were studied. In addition, activated carbon was used to treat the low concentration washing wastewater and high concentration brewing wastewater. The main research contents and conclusions were as below:

(1) With ZnCl2 as active agent, the best conditions preparation process of peach pit activated carbon was: activation temperature 500 ℃, activation time 2.5 h, ZnCl2 concentration 50%, peach pit size 50-60 mesh, impregnation ratio 1:2. Under this condition, the yield of peach pit activated carbon was 47.31%, and the removal efficiency rate of COD (the washing wastewater) was 93.67%.

The superficial characteristics results showed that the total pore volume was 0.642 cm3/g, and the specific surface area was 1180.83 m2/g, which were significantly higher than those before activation. The results of FT-IR indicate that the activated carbon may contain alcohol, phenol, carbon double bond and ether functional groups. Compared with the commercial activated carbon, the activated carbon with larger micropore volume was more suitable for the treatment of fruit wine wastewater.

(2) The experiment results showed that the temperature and pH have a significant impact on COD removal efficiency. When the amount of peach pit activated carbon is 10 g/L, the temperature is 20 ℃, initial pH is 6, the removal efficiency of COD was the highest after 60 min adsorption. The adsorption temperature had a remarkable impact on the removal efficiency of SS. The removal efficiency of SS was the highest after 60 min adsorption at 12 g/L of activated carbon, 25 ℃ and pH 7. Under the two conditions, the COD and SS of the wastewater could get to the second level of the national multiple wastewater issue standard.

The results of adsorption isotherm and dynamics showed that the maximum adsorption quantity can get to 621.12 mg/g. Quasi second-order kinetics could better describe the process of adsorption of COD by peach pit activated carbon, which showed that the process had both physisorption and chemisorption. Peach pit activated carbon was excellent for the treatment of fruit wine wastewater.

(3) The technology of ultrasonic/H2O2/activated carbon was used to treat fruit wine brewery wastewater. Considering the single factor experiment and the cost, the best ultrasonic time was 15 minutes and the best dosage of peach pit activated carbon was 14 g/L. On the basic of single factor test, a predictive model was established with ultrasonic power, ultrasonic temperature and hydrogen peroxide consumption as the influencing factors, COD removal rate as the response value. The model R2 was 0.9849, Radj2 was 0.9655, p was 0.3943, which showed that the model was significant, and the impact on COD removal efficiency of wastewater was: water quantity of hydrogen peroxide>ultrasonic power>ultrasonic temperature.

The verification experimental results showed that the best ultrasonic power is 270 W, the best temperature is 33 ℃, and the best dosage of H2O2 is 48 ml/L. In this case, the COD removal efficiency could reach 96.09 %. Combined with the results of GC-MS and others, it showed that the ultrasonic/H2O2/activated carbon method could effectively remove most of the organic matters in the brewery wastewater, which provides a useful reference for the application of ultrasonic technology in the actual brewery wastewater treatment.

Key words: peach pit activated carbon; preparation; winemaking wastewater; adsorption treatment; ultrasonic treatment

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